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How does the binary system work

Believe it or not, this winning combination extends all the way to the world of quantum mechanics.

Introduction

A simple, famous, albeit somewhat cruel, physics thought experiment involving a cat in a box reveals how quantum mechanics can create new types of computing and communication. Classical and quantum information both utilize binary, i. These are bits, short for binary digits. The physical realization of classical binary comes in many forms such as the magnetization direction of an atom, two specific voltages, an electrical switch, or two specific light intensities.

Since magnets how does the binary system work electronics are stationary components these are generally used in computers where manipulating information is needed.

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The simplest is the NOT gate that outputs the opposite of its input. This requires only one input. Somewhat hard to believe, these simple logic gates can be built up to execute the extremely complex manipulations that occur in everyday computers.

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Figure 2: An example of how logic gates work. The simplest, Welche aktien sollte man kaufen, takes one input, x, and inverts the value. For example, the AND output is simply found by multiplying the inputs. The OR output is simply the maximum of the inputs. At certain entrance angles, the light can never bounce out. This is called total internal reflection and is how light travels through fiber optic cables.

What if we want to send information?

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We can utilize the binary system with light intensities. Sending bright and dim pulses of light through a fiber optic cable, which follows the operational principle seen in figure 3, can then be a way to send information. A bright pulse can correspond to a 1, a dim pulse to a 0. Using the table, I could send you a message in binary based on light intensity. For example, to send the letter W would require sendingwhich corresponds to a bright pulse, a dim pulse, two bright pulses, and then a dim pulse.

I leave a more complex, but topical message for the readers to figure out below in Figure 6.

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Figure 4: Encoding bits in the intensity of light, with higher peaks corresponding to brighter light. Sending a sequence of bright and dim pulses is then equivalent to sending bits.

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Therefore, sending light pulses through fiber optic cables is a way to send information. Figure 5: Using Table 1, decode the binary message above!

Algorithms and Circuits

The solution will be revealed at the end of the article. An important restriction on classical binary is that it can only be in one state at a time. A single binary system is in the state 0 or 1. A two-bit system is in 1 of 4 states: 00, 01, 10, or For N classical bits, the system is in one of 2N possible states, but only one.

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In quantum mechanics, through a principle called superposition, qubits quantum bits can exist in all 2N states at the same time! Put all these elements inside the box.

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If an atom from the source decays, the hammer falls, smashing open the vile and killing the cat. Now, this is a very special box.

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There is no way to look inside, not even with the most sophisticated technology in the world. We have no clue what is going on inside.

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Therefore, when we close the box we have no idea whether the cat is dead or alive. This superposition lasts until we open the box. The moment we look inside, the superposition is destroyed as we now know whether the cat has survived this traumatic physics experiment or not. Figure 7: The Stern Gerlach experiment demonstrates the existence of quantum binary.

Binary System (3)

Classically, an atom should have a continuous spin distribution. This spin produces a magnetic field around the atom. Therefore, a magnet should separate the atoms into a continuous distribution. Instead, in the famous Stern-Gerlach experiment, they found only two spots.

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This showed the atoms were only spinning in two possible directions. When created at the furnace, the spin of the atom exists in a superposition of these two states. Like the cat, this superposition is destroyed when measured. In how does the binary system work case, the measurement is done by North and South magnets.

They can be achieved through atomic spin See Figure 7a two level atom, the polarization of a photon, or any two level quantum system that exists simultaneously in two states until measured. A classic experiment that takes superposition to the extreme is the double slit experiment with electrons.

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In this case, the superposition is not binary. The electron has a certain probability of existing everywhere in space!

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Although hard to believe and accept, quantum superposition is a proven scientific fact and here to stay. Scientists are using two important consequences of quantum superposition to drive quantum information research: quantum parallelism, and entanglement.

how does the binary system work