How does the dual system work. Deutscher Gewerkschaftsbund
Metrics details Abstract The German system of skill formation, in particular the dual system of vocational education and training VETis considered in the political economic debate to be a pillar of the German model, mainly for two reasons: On the one hand, training of skilled workers was supported by the specific path of development of diversified quality production from its beginning. On the other hand, the dual VET system represents one of the most important fields for the German corporatist governance system.
The driving forces behind these developments will be analysed and discussed with respect to their impact on the relation between the dual VET system and higher education.
The argumentation results in the following conclusion: Firstly, the broad trend toward upskilling the German labour force will continue and the integration of low-qualified youth into VET and the labour market will become more precarious than in the past.
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Secondly, corporatist governance of the dual VET-System will come more and more under pressure and become less important in the German educational system as a whole. Zusammenfassung Das deutsche Ausbildungssystem, insbesondere das duale System der Berufsausbildung, wird in der politischen Ökonomie aus wenigstens zwei Gründen als Grundpfeiler des deutschen Modells angesehen: Zum einen ist die Facharbeiterausbildung unauflöslich mit dem deutschen Industrialisierungspfad der diversifizierten Qualitätsproduktion verbunden, gleichsam als dessen qualifikatorisches Rückgrat.
Zum anderen stellt das duale Berufsausbildungssystem eines der wichtigsten Felder des deutschen korporatistischen Steuerungssystems dar. Der Artikel entwickelt folgende Argumente: Die Bedingungen des deutschen Berufsausbildungssystems haben sich in der zweiten Hälfte des Jahrhunderts fundamental gewandelt: Die kognitiven Voraussetzungen für Berufsausbildung haben sich kontinuierlich erhöht.
Seit der Bildungsreform Mitte der er Jahre hat sich das durchschnittliche Bildungsniveau der Bevölkerung sukzessive erhöht, die Bildungslandschaft in Deutschland ausdifferenziert und haben sich die Bildungskarrieren immer weiter in Richtung Hochschulbildung verlagert.
The German VET system
Die hinter diesen Entwicklungen stehenden Kräfte werden analysiert und in ihrer Bedeutung für das Verhältnis zwischen dualer Berufsausbildung und Hochschulbildung diskutiert. Im Ergebnis kommt der Beitrag zu zwei zentralen Schlussfolgerungen: 1. Der breite Trend zur Qualifikationserhöhung upskilling in der deutschen Beschäftigungsstruktur wird sich fortsetzen, und die Arbeitsmarktintegration gering qualifizierter Jugendlichen wird deutlich prekärer als in der Vergangenheit.
Die korporatistische Governance des dualen Systems wird immer mehr unter Druck geraten und im Bildungssystem insgesamt an Gewicht verlieren.
Zurück zur Übersicht Working Paper 53 The transfer of the Austrian dual system of vocational education to transition and developing countries. This paper analyzes the trend from a developmental perspective. After a historic outline of vocational education in international development and the discussion of current global trends in vocational education, the paper elaborates on the transfer of the dual system from a theoretical as well as an empirical perspective. It then goes on to describe the Austrian dual system of apprenticeship.
Theoretical and empirical perspectives on skill formation in Germany The German system of skill formation, in particular the dual system of vocational education and training VETis considered in the political economic debate to be a pillar of the German model, mainly for two reasons: On the one hand, training of skilled workers was supported by the developmental strategy of diversified quality production since its inception.
On the other hand the dual VET system represents one of the most important areas of corporatist governance in Germany. The political economy of skill formation shows the specific impact of the dual system of VET on the production model and the development of the welfare state model in Germany Soskice ; Culpepper and Finegold ; Streeck ; Thelen Recent research on the political economy of collective skill formation Busemeyer and Trampusch follows this approach, building on previous research that emphasises the the link between VET and other political-economic institutions Busemeyer and Trampusch p.
Due to its institutional approach, the political economy debate is geared to the level of regulation and thus neglects the empirical processes underlying ongoing changes in regulation. The focus is on the dual vocational education of skilled workers and the social partners associations as its political representatives Busemeyer and Trampusch, p.
This explains why the skill formation system as a whole including higher education and school-based training tracks how does the dual system work received little attention in the political economy literature focusing on institutions. The same applies to higher education research although there have been some new how does the dual system work to link the higher education development more directly to the political economy debate Graf; Andres and Pechar For more than a century the development of the general education system was more or less neglected in discussions on VET, for three reasons: First, the Gymnasium track traditionally led to higher education programmes at universities, not to VET programmes only a few students entered dual programmes after leaving the Gymnasium.
Second, the social background of students in VET and higher education varied and consequently there was little competition for educational qualifications. Third, until the second half of the twentieth century, educational programmes for craftsmen and skilled workers seemed to focus on basic cognitive skills reading, mathematics only, rather than the wider range of cognitive skills emphasized at universities and other types of schools for general education.
This is reflected in the fact that up to now no school leaving certificate is required to enter dual VET programmes.
In addition, when the dual VET system was dominant and higher education played only a minor role, both sectors co-existed without any problems.
However, since the beginning of the twenty-first century this situation has changed substantially. For the first time in the German qualification system, the number of new entrants into university and the number of entrants into dual vocational education and training VET was just about the same in the past few years.
Up to the beginning of this century the number of entrants into dual VET was nearly twice as high as the number of entrants into university studies Fig. This quantitative shift in the relationship between the major educational sectors invigorated the discussion on the future of the German skill formation system as a whole: Will the system change towards higher education or will the traditional model of dual vocational education remain the backbone of German industry and the educational model for the majority of employees?
Film: Die Duale Berufsausbildung
A third option would be a new model of skill formation, integrating both systems into a new educational order. Vocational schools: new entrants, until and from old Länder, — old Länder plus Ost Berlin, New entrants in higher education: until old Länder, from old Länder plus Ost-Berlin, Source: Federal Statistical Office Full size image The quantitative relationship between both sectors is demonstrated by the development in new entrants.
Until the mids higher education was reserved for a small group of students, in particular from the middle classes. By that time, vocational education was the main pathway into qualified employment for the majority of young people Fig.
Then, education reform and educational expansion created new dynamics: by the late s entrants to university—and later to colleges of applied sciences Fachhochschule — started to continuously increase, whereas entrants to VET, with some temporary upward and downward turns, continuously decreased.
Footnote 1 The question of possible developments of the German skill formation system not only concerns employment and economic growth; it also has an impact on social structure and industrial relations.
In Germany this question is currently being discussed mainly from three perspectives, which are the points of departure for this paper: First, there is how does the dual system work politically pragmatic point of view, mainly supported by the social partners, focussing on their domain of vocational education and training. Given the expansion of higher education, they are concerned about the future of the dual VET system. This refers to the attractiveness of dual vocational education compared to higher education with respect to the demographic decrease of school-leavers in the coming 2 decades and the reform of higher education within the Bologna process Kuda et.
It is not surprising that this question is mainly addressed by the social 60 sekunden binare optionen indikatoren, in particular by the trade unions: their possibilities for recruiting new members and for participation in society are at risk. In the frame of reference of vocational training policy as well as binare optionen top 10 education policy the steep increase in the number and proportion of first-year students has provoked a critical debate about this development under the topos of the accelerating academisation of the labour market and the employment system.
VET in Germany: Occupations and their standards
A second perspective is based on the new institutionalism in social sciences. Relating to the discussion on the transformation of the German model, this perspective is important and therefore will be discussed further. A third theoretical perspective, particularly widespread in higher education research, is based on the assumption that mass higher education is the appropriate qualification model for the emerging knowledge society.
According to how does the dual system work approach one of the reasons for the shift from vocational training to higher education is a fundamental transformation in the patterns of knowledge production from experience-based knowledge to theoretical knowledge in different forms.
Because of this, higher education institutions have become besides other non-university research institutions dynamic places for knowledge generation and dissemination, either in a discipline or in a more application oriented context Gibbons et al.
And this process is accompanied by some changes in class structures, especially by the emergence and extension of the social classes of higher- and lower-grade professionals Erikson and Goldthorpep. In view of the historical institutional separation of the main educational sectors discussed in Sect. Against the background of recent developments, we will then discuss the significance of the changes in vocational education and training and higher education with respect to the social structure and the labour market Sect.
After that, we will scrutinise the factors and conditions determining these shifts.
This, combined with the turntable of the microwave oven, gives a three-dimensional food warming system. Das hat den Vorteil, dass gemeinsam mit dem Drehboden, die Speisen dreidimensional erwärmt werden. GIZ plays a supporting role through its programme to promote the dual systemmaster tradespersons and small and medium enterprises DSME programme. The system has a fast dual core processor drive with a pulse frequency of 1 GHz.
These will be analysed from two perspectives: the changing educational behavior and the changing structures in the labour market and employment Sect. Finally we will describe some new attempts at linking vocational and higher education Sect. This includes new how does the dual system work arrangements between both sectors as well as new governance structures.
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The legacy of the past: the segmentation between vocational and higher education To understand the ongoing developments in the German system of skill formation, it is necessary to consider its historical development.